Vs, Vmu, Vmcg, Vmca 란?

항공기의 Certification과정에 있어 위해선 4개의 Speed를 demonstration 해야 한다.

  1. Vs(Stall speed)
  2. Vmu(Minimum unstick speed)
  3. Vmcg(Minimum control speed on the ground)
  4. Vmca(Minimum control speed in the air)

1.Vs (Stall Speed): 
The minimum steady flight speed at which the airplane is controllable.’ – 양력이 더이상 지속될수 없는 지점

VS1G: 1G Stall Speed -> Loadfactor가 여전히 1인 최대 양력계수에 따른 실속속도  
(즉 AOA를 더 증가시키면 바로 양력이 줄기 시작하는 지점.). 

항상 Vs1g 는 Vs 보다 크다 (Vs1g > Vs)

항공기 certification에 사용되는 Stall Speed를  reference stall speed(Vsr)이라 한다.

‘FAR 25.103:  The reference stall speed VSR  is a calibrated airspeed defined by the applicant. VSR may not be less than a 1-g stall speed.’

2. ‘Minimum Unstick speed – VMU’

  • Flight Test시 Demonstrate
  • 항공기가 지상에 있을때 물리적으로 달성가능한 최대 AOA
‘FAR 25.107 VMU  is the calibrated airspeed at and above which the airplane can safely lift off the ground, and continue the takeoff.’

3. Vmcg(Minimum control speed – Ground)
– 오직 aerodynamic controls만을 이용해(Nose wheel Steering 불가) 특별한 기술 없이도 엔진 Fail시 항공기의 측면 이동을 활주로 중심으로부터 30’이내로 제한 시킬 수 있는 최소속도

‘VMCG 의 결정을 위한 요구조건: 
– 정상적인 Engine은 최대 Takeoff Thrust이여야 한다 (bleeds off)
– 가장 불리한 최대 후방(farthest aft) CG
– 최대 이륙중량
– 이륙 Trimming 일것
(minimum control speeds 결정시 측풍은 고려되지 않는다)

FAR 25.149  VMCG, the minimum control speed on the ground, is the calibrated airspeed during the takeoff run at which, when the critical engine is suddenly made inoperative, it is possible to maintain control of the airplane using the rudder control alone.’

4. Vmca(Minimum control speed – Air)
 – Critical engine이 부작동시 나머지 하나의 Engine으로 Bank 5° 이내에서 Straight flight이 가능한 최저속도
 – Recovery 조작시(특별한 기술 없이도) Heading 20° 이내까지 허용됨

VMCA의 결정을 위한 요구조건: 
– 정상적인 Engine은 최대 Takeoff Thrust이여야 한다 (bleeds off)
– 가장 불리한 최대 후방(farthest aft) CG
– 최대 이륙중량
– 이륙 Trimming 일것
– 가장 critical configuration 이며 L/G는 Up
– groundeffect는 무시한다

  VMCA ≥ 1.2 VS

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